CTP promotes efficient ParB-dependent DNA condensation by facilitating one-dimensional diffusion from parS
Francisco de Asis Balaguer, Clara Aicart-Ramos, Gemma LM Fisher, Sara de Bragança, Eva M Martin Cuevas, Cesar L Pastrana, Mark S Dillingham and Fernando Moreno-Herero.
Abstract: Faithful segregation of bacterial chromosomes relies on the ParABS partitioning system and the SMC complex. In this work, we used single molecule techniques to investigate the role of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) binding and hydrolysis in the critical interaction between centromere-like parS DNA sequences and the ParB CTPase. Using a combined optical tweezers confocal microscope, we observe the specific interaction of ParB with parS directly. Binding around parS is enhanced by the presence of CTP or the non-hydrolysable analogue CTPgS. However, ParB proteins are also detected at a lower density in distal non-specific DNA. This requires the presence of a parS loading site and is prevented by protein roadblocks, consistent with one dimensional diffusion by a sliding clamp. ParB diffusion on non-specific DNA is corroborated by direct visualization and quantification of movement of individual quantum-dot labelled ParB. Magnetic tweezers experiments show that the spreading activity, which has an absolute requirement for CTP binding but not hydrolysis, results in the condensation of parS-containing DNA molecules at low nanomolar protein concentrations.
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